After the destruction of Anuradhapura in 993 by Rajaraja, Polonnaruwa, formerly a temporary royal residence, became a capital.
History of Polonnaruwa
The conquering Cholas constructed monuments to their religion - Brahmanism - and especially temples to Shiva, where admirable bronze statues were found (they are now in the museum at Colombo).
The reconquest of Ceylon by Vijayabahu I (c.1070) did not put an end to the city's role as capital, but it became covered with Buddhist sanctuaries, of which the Atadage (Temple of the Tooth Relic) is the most renowned.
The apogee of Polonnaruwa occured in the 12th century AD. Two sovereigns, then proceeded to endow it with monuments. Parakramabahu I (1153-1186) created within a triple-walled enceinte a fabulous garden-city, where palaces and sanctuaries prologned the enchantment of the countryside.
Nissamkamalla (1187-1196) constructed monuments which, though less refined than those of Parakramabahu I, were nonetheless splendid
After this golden age, Polonnaruwa underwent a century of difficulties, before its definitive decline. The city which was invaded by the Tamils and the Maghas, then reconquered in a precarious manner, was only periodically the capital before the end of the 13th century when it was captured in an assault by Bhuvanaikabuha II, who set up his government at Kurunegala.
The immense capital created by the megalomanic sovereign, Parakhambahu I, in the 12th century, is one of history's most astonishing urban creations, both because of its unusual dimensions and because of the very special relationship of its buildings with the natural setting.
What to See at Polonnaruwa
Many of the finest monuments at Polonnaruwa were constructed in the mid-12th century under Parakramabahu. Among these are:
The late 12th century saw the construction of the Rankot Vihara, an enormous stupa measuring 175 meters in diameter and 55 meters in height. Its plan and dimensions are reminiscent of the dagabas of Anuradhapura.
Quick Facts on Polonnaruwa
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|Coordinates:||7.945910° N, 81.001540° E|
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Map of Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka
Below is a location map and aerial view of Polonnaruwa. Using the buttons on the left (or the wheel on your mouse), you can zoom in for a closer look, or zoom out to get your bearings. To move around, click and drag the map with your mouse.