Moscow (Москва́), is Russia's capital and largest city, with a rapidly growing population of more than 11 million people. Moscow is the country's primary transportation hub and home to its most renowned cultural, political and religious institutions. Founded in the 12th century as the capital of a minor principality, Moscow eventually emerged as the center of a unified Russian state in the 15th century. The capital was moved to the new city of St. Petersburg in 1703 under Peter the Great, but Lenin moved the capital back to Moscow in 1917.
Moscow has been a site of great spiritual importance for most of its history. It has long claimed the title of "Third Rome," regarding itself as a spiritual successor to the imperial Christian capitals of Rome and Constantinople. The city is still the center of Russian Orthdodox Christianity. The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Russian Orthodox Church.