Syria

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Apamea
This ancient city features an exceptionally long Roman street and other classical ruins. In the Byzantine era, it was home to Evagrius the church historian, Theodoret the bishop, and Monophysitism.
Dura Europos
This important archaeological site has been called the Pompeii of the Syrian Desert. It was abandoned in the 3rd century and is home to the oldest surviving house-church and synagogue ever found.
Great Mosque of Damascus (Umayyad Mosque)
This historic 7th-century mosque stands on a site that has been sacred since 1000 BC. It has medieval mosaics on the facade and a shrine to John the Baptist inside.
Jerada
The ruins of Jerada include extensive remains of upper-class houses, a 6-story watchtower and a 5th-century Byzantine cathedral. Column capitals and lintels feature simple geometric designs reminiscent of Visigothic art done in Spain around the same time.
Palmyra
Palmyra was once a great and powerful Roman city, as its impressive ruins attest. Substantial ruins of temples to Bel and Baal can be seen here.
Shrine of Sayidda Zeinab
This is a beautiful Iranian-style mosque and shrine in southern Damascus, housing the tomb of Sayidda Zeinab, daughter of Ali and granddaughter of the Prophet Muhammad. It attracts Shi'a pilgrims from Iran and around the world.
Tekkiye Mosque
This Turkish-style mosque complex was designed by the great architect Sinan on order of Sulieman the Magnificent, and therefore looks much like a mosque you would see in Istanbul.
Serjilla
Serjilla (also spelled Sarjella) gets Lonely Planet's vote as the "most eerie and evocative" of the Dead Cities of northern Syria. It also has the greatest number of semi-complete buildings.