Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is a sprawling city of over 12 million people that is home to some of the world's greatest religious sites and treasures. Cairo and the nearby areas of Memphis and Giza hold some of the world's best museums, monuments and ancient treasures, the vast majority of which are of a religious nature. Besides its magnificent relics of Ancient Egypt, Cairo may be second only to Jerusalem in its concentration of sites of interest to Jews, Christians and Muslims.
Cairo has been conquered and reconquered by various groups throughout its long history. Never inhabited by the pharaohs, Cairo was founded as a Roman trading post and later taken over by the Arabs (7th century) and then the French and the British (19th century). The revolution of 1952 finally returned the city to Egyptian hands. Cairo is unique in that each new ruler did not destroy anything, but simply built a new city next to the old one. Thus you can follow the progression of history by walking through the various districts of Cairo.