Rome, the "Eternal City," has been a sacred place and internationally important city since ancient times. Rome's history extends nearly 2,800 years, during which time it has been the seat of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire, the Papal States, the Kingdom of Italy and the Italian Republic. The first known temple in Rome was built around 575 BC. A Jewish community was established in Rome in 161 BC and remains active today. Christians arrived in the 1st century AD, and Rome has been the center of Catholic Christianity ever since. Rome's abundance of ancient temples, synagogues, churches and shrines make it one of the best cities to explore the holy places of a variety of religious traditions.
This magnificent ancient temple was built by Emperor Hadrian in 125 AD and converted into a church in 609. It is the oldest intact ancient building in Rome.
Temple of Vespasian and Titus
Three Corinthian columns remain of this temple at the west end of the Roman Forum. It was built c.80-85 AD to the deified emperors Vespasian (d. 79) and Titus (d. 81).
The most sacred of the seven hills in Rome, Capitoline Hill once hosted a great temple. Today it is home to the Capitoline Museum, with temple ruins and classical sculptures.
Santo Stefano Rotondo
Dedicated to St. Stephen, the first martyr, this is one of the largest and oldest round churches in existence. Dating from the 5th century, it reflects local and foreign influences.
San Pietro in Vincoli
A church housing the venerated chains that held St. Peter while he was imprisoned in Rome before being freed by an angel.
The magnificent Roman Colosseum has long been considered sacred because of its legendary association with early Christian martyrs.
San Lorenzo fuori le Mura
This major pilgrimage basilica features a columned portico, 6th-century mosaic, catacombs, and lovely 12th-century cloister. It is dedicated to Lawrence, who was martyred by roasting on a gridiron.
Santi Cosma e Damiano
This ancient church in the Imperial Forum contains ruins of a Roman temple (overlooked through a glass wall in the back) and some wonderful early Christian mosaics in the apse.
St. Peter's Basilica
For Roman Catholics, St. Peter's is the most sacred site after the Holy Land. It centers around the tomb of St. Peter the Apostle and is one of the largest churches in the world.
This world-famous chapel painted by Michelangelo is still used for papal elections. Explore a complete photo gallery of its art as part of our article on the Sistine Chapel.